Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Urdu: Hi-Muhammed_Ali_Jinnah.ogg (Urdu: محمد علی جناح) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948), a 20th century politician and statesman, is generally regarded as the founder of Pakistan. He served as leader of The Muslim League and Pakistan’s first Governor-General.
He is officially known in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam (Urdu: قائد اعظم — “Great Leader”) and Baba-e-Qaum (بابائے قوم) (“Father of the Nation”). His birthday is a national holiday in Pakistan. He has been equally admired by his opponents due to his visionary approach and use of constitutional and legal channels as a lawyer to bring about and end to British rule to India and creation of Pakistan.
Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress expounding ideas of Hindu-Muslim unity and helping shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact with the Muslim League; he also became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League. After observing Congress’s injustice with Indian Muslims, Jinnah left Congress eventually. He proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India. Jinnah embraced the goal of creating a separate state for Muslims as per the Lahore Resolution. The League won most Muslim seats in the elections of 1946, and Jinnah launched the Direct Action campaign movement to achieve independence of Pakistan. The strong reaction of Congress supporters resulted in communal violence across South Asia. The failure of the Congress-League coalition to govern the country prompted both parties and the British to agree to independence of Pakistan and India. As the Governor-General of Pakistan, Jinnah led efforts to rehabilitate millions of refugees, and to frame national policies on foreign affairs, security and economic development.
Allama Sir Muhammad Iqbal (Urdu: محمد اقبال; November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was a Muslim poet, philosopher and politician born in Sialkot, Pakistan, whose poetry in Urdu, Arabic and Persian is considered to be among the greatest of the modern era, and whose vision of an independent state for the Muslims of British India was to inspire the creation of Pakistan. He is commonly referred to as Allama Iqbal (علامہ اقبال, Allama meaning “Scholar”.)
After studying in England and Germany, Iqbal established a law practice, but concentrated primarily on writing scholarly works on politics, economics, history, philosophy and religion. He is best known for his poetic works, including Asrar-e-Khudi—which brought a knighthood— Rumuz-e-Bekhudi, and the Bang-e-Dara, with its enduring patriotic song Tarana-e-Hind. In India, he is regarding for the patriotic song, Saare Jahan Se Achcha. In Afghanistan and Iran, where he is known as Iqbāl-e Lāhorī (اقبال لاہوری Iqbal of Lahore), he is highly regarded for his Persian works.
Iqbal was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilisation across the world, but specifically in South Asia; a series of famous lectures he delivered to this effect were published as The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. One of the most prominent leaders of the All India Muslim League, Iqbal encouraged the creation of a “state in northwestern India for Muslims” in his 1930 presidential address. Iqbal encouraged and worked closely with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and he is known as Muffakir-e-Pakistan (“The Thinker of Pakistan”), Shair-e-Mashriq (“The Poet of the East”), and Hakeem-ul-Ummat (“The Sage of Ummah”). He is officially recognized as the national poet of Pakistan. The anniversary of his birth (یوم ولادت محمد اقبال – Yōm-e Welādat-e Muḥammad Iqbāl) on November 9 is a national holiday in Pakistan.
Chaudhary Rahmat Ali
Chaudhary Rahmat Ali (Urdu/Punjabi: چودھری رحمت علی) (or Rehmat Ali Khan; Urdu/Punjabi: رحمت علی خان) (November 16, 1897 – February 3, 1951) was an Indian Muslim nationalist who was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of the state of Pakistan. He is credited with creating the name “Pakistan” for a separate Muslim homeland on the Indian subcontinent.
Education and career
Rehmat Ali was born in the town of Balachaur in Hoshiarpur District of Punjab (now Nawanshahr District). After graduating from Islamia Madrassa Lahore in 1918, he taught at Aitchison College Lahore before continuing Law studies at Punjab University. In 1930 he moved to England to join Emmanuel College, Cambridge in 1931. In 1933, he published a pamphlet, Now or Never, coining the word Pakistan for the first time. Subsequently, he obtained a BA degree in 1933 and MA in 1940 from University of Cambridge. In 1943, he was called to the Bar, Middle Temple Inn, London. Until 1947, he continued publishing various booklets about his vision of the subcontinent. The partition process disillusioned him due to the mass killings and mass migrations. He was also dissatisfied with the distribution of areas among the two countries and considered it a major reason for disturbances. He died on 3 February 1951 and was buried on 20 February at Newmarket Road Cemetery, Cambridge, UK.
Conception of ‘Pakistan’ There are several accounts to the conceptualising of the name. According to a friend (Abdul Kareem Jabbar) the name came up when Rehmat Ali was walking along the banks of the Thames in 1932 with his friends Pir Ahsan-ud-Din and Khawja Abdul Rahim. According to Rehmat Ali’s secretary Miss Frost, he came up with the idea of the name ‘Pakistan’ while riding on the top of a London bus. In the early 1930s, Ali began writing about the formation of a Muslim nation in India. On January 28, 1933, he voiced his ideas in the pamphlet entitled “Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?”. The word ‘Pakstan’ referred to “the five Northern units of India, Viz: Punjab, (Afghanistan Province), Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan “” . By the end of 1933, ‘Pakistan’ become common vocabulary where an i was added to ease pronunciation (as in Afghan-i-stan). In a subsequent book Rehmat Ali discussed the etymology in further detail. ‘Pakistan’ is both a Persian and an Urdu word. It is composed of letters taken from the names of all our Indian Sub-continent homelands; that is, Panjab, Afghanistan (Pashtunistan), Kashmir, Sindh (including Kach and Kathiawar), Tukharistan, Afghanistan, and Balochistan. It means the land of the Paks- the spiritually pure and clean. It symbolizes the religious beliefs and ethnical stocks of our people; and it stands for all the territorial constituents of our original Fatherland. It has no other origin and no other meaning; and it does not admit of any other interpretation. Those writers who have tried to interpret it in more than way have done so either through the love of casuistry, or through ignorance of its inspiration, origin and composition.
Philosophy Like Allama Iqbal, Ali believed that the Muslims of India had to undergo a reformation politically in order to remain a viable, and independent community there. Ali noted that Hazrat Muhammad had succeeded in uniting fractured Arab tribes and that this example was to again be used by Muslims of India to pool together in order to survive in what he perceived to be an increasingly hostile India. As such, Chaudhary Rahmat Ali’s writings, in addition to those of Iqbal and others were major catalysts for the formation of Pakistan. He offered “Bang-i-Islam” for a Muslim homeland in the Bengal, and “Usmanistan” for a Muslim homeland in the Deccan. He also suggested “Dinia” as a name for a subcontinent for various religions. Ali dedicated a lot of time and energy to the idea of Pakistan, and after its formation in 1947, he argued on its behalf at the United Nations over the issue of Kashmir.
Post-independence While Chaudhary Rahmat Ali was a leading figure for the conception of Pakistan, he lived most of his adult life in England. The Cambridge-based pamphleteer had been voicing his dissatisfaction with the creation of Pakistan ever since his arrival in Lahore on April 6 1948. He was unhappy over a Smaller Pakistan than the one he had conceived in his 1933 pamphlet Now Or Never.Consequently, Rahmat Ali died in 1951, buried in Cambridge City graveyard.
Muhammad bin Qasim [695-715]
Muhammad bin Qasim was orphaned as a child and thus the responsibility of his upbringing fell upon his mother. She supervised his religious instruction herself, and hired different teachers for his worldly education. It was the uncle, Hajjaj bin Yousaf, who taught him the art of governing and warfare.
Qasim was an intelligent and cultured young man who at the age of fifteen was considered by many to be one of his uncle’s greatest assets. As a show of faith in his nephew’s abilities, Hajjaj married his daughter to Qasim. At the age of sixteen, he was asked to serve under the great general, Qutayba bin Muslim. Under his command Muhammad bin Qasim displayed a talent for skilful fighting and military planning. Hajjaj’s complete trust in Qasim’s abilities as a general became even more apparent when he appointed the young man as the commander of the all-important invasion on Sindh, when he was only seventeen years old. Muhammad bin Qasim proved Hajjaj right when he, without many problems, managed to win all his military campaigns. He used both his mind and military skills in capturing places like Daibul, Raor, Uch and Multan. History does not boast of many other commanders who managed such a great victory at such a young age.
Besides being a great general, Muhammad bin Qasim was also an excellent administrator. He established peace and order as well as a good administrative structure in the areas he conquered. He was a kind hearted and religious person. He had great respect for other religions. Hindu and Buddhist spiritual leaders were given stipends during his rule. The poor people of the land were greatly impressed by his policies and a number of them embraced Islam. Those who stuck to their old religions erected statues in his honor and started worshiping him after his departure from their land.
Muhammad bin Qasim was known for his obedience to the ruler. Walid bin Abdul Malik died and was succeeded by his younger brother Suleman as the Caliph. Suleman was an enemy of Hajjaj and thus ordered Qasim back to the kingdom. Qasim knew of the animosity between the two. He was aware that due to this enmity, he would not be well treated. He could have easily refused to obey the Caliph’s orders and declare his independence in Sindh. Yet he was of the view that obeying ones ruler is the duty of a general and thus he decided to go back to the center. Here he became a victim to party politics. He was put behind bars where he died at age of twenty. Many historians believe that had he been given a few more years, he would have conquered the entire South Asian region.
Syed Abul A’ala Maududi
(Urdu: سید ابو الاعلىٰ مودودی – alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi and Modudi) (September 25, 1903(1903-09-25) – September 22, 1979), also known as Molana (Maulana) or Shaikh Syed Abul A’ala Mawdudi, was a Sunni Pakistani journalist, theologian, Muslim Revivalist Leader and political philosopher, and a major 20th century Islamist thinker.
He was also a prominent political figure in his home country (Pakistan). He was also the founder of Jamaat-e-Islami the Islamic revivalist party.
• 1903 – Born in Aurangabad, Hyderabad Deccan, India
• 1918 – Started career as journalist in Bijnore newspaper
• 1920 – Appointed as editor of the daily Taj, Jabalpur
• 1925 – Appointed as editor daily Muslim
• 1925 – Appointed as editor Al-jameeah, New Delhi
• 1927 – Wrote the blockbuster book of the history Al- Jihad fil Islam
• 1930 – Wrote and published the famous booklet Deenyat
• 1932 – Started Tarjuman-ul-Qur’an from Hyderabad (India)
• 1938 – Moved to “Pathankot”, established Darul Islam
• 1941 – Foundation meeting of Jamaat-e-Islami Hind, appointed as Amir
• 1942 – Jamaat’s headquarters moved to Pathankot
• 1943 – Started writing the most popular Tafseer of Qur’an Tafhim-ul-Quran
• 1947 – Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan Headquarter moved to Lahore (Ichhra)
• 1948 – Campaign for Islamic constitution and government
• 1948 – Wrote a booklet “Qadiyani Masla”
• 1948 – Sentenced to Jail by the Government
• 1949 – Government accepted Jamaat’s resolution for Islamic Constitution
• 1953 – Sentenced to death for his historical part in the agitation against Ahmadiyah. He was sentenced to death by a military court, but it never carried out;
• 1953 – Death sentence commuted to life imprisonment and later canceled.
• 1955 – Released from jail
• 1958 – Jamaat-e-Islami banned by Martial Law Administrator Field Martial Ayub Khan
• 1964 – Sentenced to jail
• 1964 – Released from jail
• 1971 – Ordered his followers to fight to save United Pakistan along with Pak Army.
• 1972 – Completed Tafheem-ul-Qur’an (Tafseer of Qur’an)
• 1972 – Resigned as Ameer-e-Jamaat
• 1979 – Departed to United States for Medical Treatment
• 1979 – Died in United States *1979 – Buried in Ichhra, Lahore (Inna Lillahi-wa-inna-ilayhi-Rajeeoun)
Syed Abul A’ala Maududi was born on September 25, 1903 (Rajab 3, 1321 AH) in Aurangabad, then part of the princely state of Hyderabad (presently Maharashtra), India. Syed Abul A’ala Maududi was born to Maulana Ahmad Hasan, a lawyer by profession. Syed Abul A’ala Maududi was the youngest of his three brothers. His father was “descended from the Chishti line of saints; in fact his last name was derived from the first member of the Chishti Silsilah i.e. Khawajah Syed Qutb ul-Din Maudood Chishti (d. 527 AH) At an early age, Maududi was given home education, he “received religious nurture at the hands of his father and from a variety of teachers employed by him.” He soon moved on to formal education, however, and completed his secondary education from Madrasah Furqaniyah. For his undergraduate studies he joined Darul Uloom, Hyderabad (India). His undergraduate studies, however, were disrupted by the illness and death of his father, and he completed his studies outside of the regular educational institutions. His instruction included very little of the subject matter of a modern school, such as European languages, like English.
After the interruption of his formal education, Maududi turned to journalism in order to make his living. In 1918, he was already contributing to a leading Urdu newspaper, and in 1920, at the age of 17, he was appointed editor of Taj, which was being published from Jabalpore (now Madhya Pradesh). Late in 1920, Maududi went to Delhi and first assumed the editorship of the newspaper Muslim (1921-23), and later of al-Jam’iyat (1925-28), both of which were the organs of the Jam’iyat-i Ulama-i Hind, an organization of Muslim religious scholars.
Founding the Jamaat-e-Islami
In 1941, Maududi founded Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) in British India as a religious political movement to promote Islamic values and practices. After the Partition of India, JI was redefined in 1947 to support an Islamic State in Pakistan. JI is currently the oldest religious party in Pakistan. With the Partition of India, JI split into several groups. The organisation headed by Maududi is now known as Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan. Also existing are Jamaat-e-Islami Hind, Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, and autonomous groups in Indian Kashmir, also in Sri Lanka. Maududi was elected Jamaat’s first Ameer (President) and remained so until 1972 when he withdrew from the responsibility for reasons of health.
In the beginning of struggle for a state of Pakistan Maudidi and his party were against the idea of creation of a separate state of Pakistan and attacked Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan and other leaders of Muslim league. After became clear India was going to be partitioned and Pakistan created, he began to support the idea. Maududi moved to Pakistan in 1947 and worked to turn it into an Islamic state, resulting in frequent arrests and long periods of incarceration. In 1953, he was sentenced to death on the charge of writing a seditious pamphlet about the Ahmadiyya issue. He turned down the opportunity to file a petition for mercy, expressing a preference for death rather than seeking clemency. Strong public pressure ultimately convinced the government to commute his death sentence to life imprisonment. Eventually, his sentence was annulled.
In April 1979, Maududi’s long-time kidney ailment worsened and by then he also had heart problems. He went to the United States for treatment and was hospitalized in Buffalo, New York, where his second son worked as a physician. During his hospitalization, he remained intellectually active.Following a few surgical operations, he died on September 22, 1979, at the age of 76. His funeral was held in Buffalo, but he was buried in an unmarked grave at his residence in Lahore after a very large funeral procession through the city.
Abdul Qadeer Khan
Khan was born Bhopal into a Urdu Speaking-Pathan family, which migrated from India to Pakistan in 1952. He obtained a B.Sc. degree in 1960 from the University of Karachi, majoring in physical metallurgy. He then obtained an engineer’s degree in 1967 from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, and a Ph.D. degree in metallurgical engineering from the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium in 1972.. He is a Pakistani nuclear scientist and metallurgical engineer, widely regarded as the founder of Pakistan’s nuclear program. His middle name is occasionally rendered as Quadeer, Qadir or Qadeer, and his given names are usually abbreviated to A.Q..
Development of nuclear weapons
In 1976, Khan was put in charge of Pakistan’s uranium enrichment program with the support of the then Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The uranium enrichment program was originally launched in 1974 by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as Project-706 and Khan joined it in the spring of 1976. Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan took over the project from another Pakistani nuclear engineer, Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood in July 1976. In July of that year, he took over the project from PAEC and re-named the enrichment project as the Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL) at Kahuta, Rawalpindi, subsequently, renamed the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) by the then President of Pakistan, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. The laboratories became the focal point for developing a uranium enrichment capability for Pakistan’s nuclear weapons development programme.
Competing Against Munir Ahmad Khan and PAEC
But KRL led by dr. Khan was not mandated or involved with the actual design, development and testing of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons which was the responsibility of PAEC. Nor was KRL responsible for developing the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle, comprising uranium exploration, mining and refining and production of yellow cake, conversion of yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride gas which is the feed material for enrichment and nuclear fuel fabrication; or the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle comprising the civil and military nuclear reactor projects and the reprocessing program, all of which was developed and led from 1972 onwards by PAEC under Mr. Munir Ahmad Khan.Dr. Khan initially worked under Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), headed by Munir Ahmad Khan, for a short period. But the pair fell out, and in July 1976, Prime Minister Bhutto gave dr. Khan autonomous control of the uranium enrichment project, reporting directly to the prime minister’s office, which arrangement has continued since. Dr. Khan founded the Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL) on 31 July 1976, with the exclusive task of indigenous development of Uranium Enrichment Plant. Within the next five years the target would be achieved. KRL led by dr. A Q Khan and PAEC led by Munir Ahmad Khan created a tough institutional rivalry against each other. Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan was also a staunch critic of Munir Ahmad Khan’s work. In the early 1980s, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan’s KRL also sought to develop nuclear weapons in competetion with PAEC and claimed to have carried out at least one cold test in 1984, but it seems that this effort did not prove to be successful since PAEC led by Munir Ahmad Khan had carried out the first cold test of a working nuclear device on March 11, 1983, and in the following years continued to carry out 24 cold tests of different weapons designs. That is why PAEC also conducted the 1998 nuclear tests for Pakistan at Chaghi and Kharan.
Relationships with President Gen. Zia ul-Haq and Pakistan Army
According to the media reports, it said that dr. Khan had an extremely close relationship with President Gen. Mohammad Zia ul-Haq and Pakistan Army. Dr. Khan had extremely close relations with the Pakistan Army. On 01 May 1981, after President Gen. Mohammad Zia ul-Haq official visit to ERL; ERL was renamed by Gen. Mohammad Zia ul-Haq as Dr. Khan Research Laboratories (KRL). It was enrichment of Uranium in KRL that ultimately led to the successful detonation of Pakistan’s first nuclear device on 28 May 1998. However, KRL also launched other weapons development projects like in competion ofPAEC the development of the nuclear weapons-capable Ghauri ballistic missile. the PAEC was developing the solid fuelled Shaheen ballistic missile. KRL occupied a unique role in Pakistan’s Defence Industry, reporting directly to the office of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, and having extremely close relations with the Pakistani military. The former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto (late), has said that, during her term of office, even she was not allowed to visit the facility (KRL).
Pakistan’s establishment of its own uranium enrichment capability was so rapid that international suspicion was raised as to whether there was outside assistance to this program. It was reported that Chinese technicians had been at the facility in the early 1980s, but suspicions soon fell on Khan’s activities at URENCO. In 1983, Khan was sentenced in absentia to four years in prison by an Amsterdam court for attempted espionage; the sentence was later overturned at an appeal on a legal technicality. Khan rejected any suggestion that Pakistan had illicitly acquired nuclear expertise: “All the research work [at Kahuta] was the result of our innovation and struggle,” he told a group of Pakistani librarians in 1990. “We did not receive any technical know-how from abroad, but we cannot reject the use of books, magazines, and research papers in this connection.”]In 1987, a British newspaper reported that Khan had confirmed Pakistan’s acquisition of a nuclear weapons development capability, by his saying that the U.S. intelligence report “about our possessing the bomb (nuclear weapon) is correct and so is speculation of some foreign newspapers”.] Khan’s statement was disavowed by the Government of Pakistan. and initially he denied giving it, but he later retracted his denial. In October 1991, the Pakistani newspaper Dawn reported that Khan had repeated his claim at a dinner meeting of businessmen and industrialists in Karachi, which “sent a wave of jubilation” through the audience.
During the 1980s and 1990s, the Western governments became increasingly convinced that covert nuclear and ballistic missile collaboration was taking place between China, Pakistan, and North Korea. According to the Washington Post, “U.S. intelligence operatives secretly rifled Dr. A.Q. [Khan's] luggage … during an overseas trip in the early 1980s to find the first concrete evidence of Chinese collaboration with Pakistan’s [nuclear] bomb effort: a drawing of a crude, but highly reliable, Hiroshima-sized [nuclear] weapon that must have come directly from Beijing, according to the U.S. officials.” In October 1990, the activities of KRL led to the United States terminating economic and military aid to Pakistan, following this, the Government of Pakistan agreed to a freeze in its nuclear weapons development program. But Khan, in a July 1996 interview with the Pakistani weekly Friday Times, said that “at no stage was the program [of producing nuclear weapons-grade enriched uranium] ever stopped”.
General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (Arabic: محمد ضياء الحق) (b. August 12, 1924–August 17, 1988) was the President and military ruler of Pakistan from July 1977 to his death in August 1988. Distinguished by his role in the Black September in Jordan military operation in 1970, he was appointed Chief of Army Staff in 1976. General Zia came to power after he overthrew ruling Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in a military coup d’état on July 5, 1977 and became the state’s third ruler to impose martial law. He initially ruled as Chief Martial Law Administrator, but later assumed the post of President of Pakistan in September 1978.
Zia’s major domestic initiatives included the country’s Islamization, the consolidation of the fledgling nuclear program, denationalization and deregulation leading to a rejuvenated economy, as well as the abridgement of civil and political liberties. However, he is most remembered for his foreign policy; the subsidizing of the Mujahideen movement during the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
Zia was killed along with several of his top generals and the then United States Ambassador to Pakistan in a sabotage-induced aircraft crash near Bahawalpur (Punjab) on August 17, 1988, the circumstances of which remain unclear.
Hakim Mohammed Said
(Urdu: حکیم محمد سعید) (January 9, 1920 – October 17, 1998) was a renowned scholar, and philanthropist of Pakistan and a former Governor of Sindh. He established Hamdard Foundation in 1948. Within few years, the herbal medical products of Hamdard became household names. Hakim Mohammed Said wrote or compiled about 200 books. These include books on religion, tibb (natural medicine), health and sciences, books on literary, social and scientific topics and travelogues.
Establishing Hamdard University
Hakim Mohammed Said founded Hamdard University in 1991. The establishment of a university which could enliven the intellectual tradition of the educational institutions of the golden era of Muslim civilization had always been his most cherished dream. In fact it was the central point towards which all his endeavors were directed. The actual appearance of the university was just the culmination of a long dedicated and continued effort spanning his whole life.
A great personality of PakistanShaheed-e-Pakistan Hakim Mohammed Said (1920-1998) was a man of vision and was endowed with many virtues. He was a multifaceted personality, a physician, author of books, and editor of journals, bibliophile, an organizer, an idealist, an innovator, educationist and above all a patriot of the highest order. He sacrificed his life in the service of the nation. In a life span of 78 years he made enormous contributions in the field of health, science, education and culture, which has left an imprint on the course of history for generations to follow.
He was strictly a man of principles with extraordinary sense of time management. The guidance he gave showed that he was an extraordinary genius, born to guide and lead the people. Although the assassin’s bullets extinguished and silenced the noble soul ten years ago, the light of his spirit lives on to inspire and encourage others to follow his mission. Lest we forget what is owed to this remarkable personality, an institution under the name of “IDARA-E-SAID” has been set up in one of his most ambitious projects – Madinat-al-Hikmah – city of education science and culture whose doors are ever open for the seekers of knowledge. The library, housed in Madinat-al-Hikmah is undoubtedly one of the finest seats of learning east of Suez, for scholars and researchers to drink deep from the fountains of learning.The crowning activity of his life is the establishment of Madinat-al-Hikmah. It comprises Hamdard University with such institutes as Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry, Hamdard Al-Majeed College of Eastern Medicine, Hafiz Mohammad Ilyas Institute of Herbal Sciences, Hamdard Institute of Education & Social Sciences, Hamdard Institute of Management Sciences, Hamdard Institute of Information Technology, Hamdard School of Law, Faculty of Engineering Science & Technology, Hamdard Public School and Hamdard Village School. . Bait-al-Hikmah (the Library) is also a constituent part of Madinat-al-Hikmah. This is one of the biggest and well-stocked libraries of Pakistan.
Shaheed Hakim Mohammed Said wrote, edited or compiled over 200 books and journals in Urdu and English on Islam, Education, Pakistan, Science, Medicine and Health. Besides writing travelogues of countries he visited, he also wrote books especially for youth and children. He also edited some journals such as Hamdard Islamicus, Hamdard Medicus, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society “Historicus”, Hamdard Sehat and Hamdard Naunehal. For several years he was also editor of “PAYAMI”- Urdu edition of UNESCO’S journal “Courier”. Shaheed Hakim Mohammed Said participated in various international conferences on medicine, science, education and culture and traveled widely to many countries of the world. While in Pakistan he himself organized numerous international and national conferences on topics of prime importance.
IDARA-E-SAID Shaheed Hakim Mohammed Said, Research and Documentation CentreIn order to preserve his works, a Research and Documentation Center by the name of Idara-e-Said has been set-up. It is a joint venture of Hamdard Laboratories (Waqf) Pakistan; Hamdard University; and Hamdard Foundation Pakistan. Idara-e-Said will project and focus the life and works of Shaheed Hakim Mohammed Said, most particularly in the field of science, education and research, medicine and health care. The project is aimed at collection of Shaheed Hakim Mohammed Said speeches, writings (both published and un-published), personal memorabilia, photographs and artifacts. After the collection of materials related to his life and works, all records will be preserved and displayed in a scientifically arranged and properly managed museum. Hakim Mohammed Said Archives / Museum is being set-up at Madinat-al-Hikmah.
Research Projects of Idara-e-SaidIdara-e-Said will also initiate research projects leading to the award of post graduate (M.Phil. & PhD) degrees on the contribution of Hakim Mohammed Said to Islam, education, medicine, sciences & culture. Idara-e-Said will also patronize publications of literature and books written by different authors on the life of Hakim Mohammed Said, his personality, leadership and his endeavors for the propagation and promotion of education and learning. It is a matter of great pleasure that first M.Phil degree on the life and works of Hakim Mohammed Said Shaheed was awarded to Mr. Javed Swati in Hamdard University convocation 2002. His topic of research was “Education Ideas & Perceptions of Hakim Mohammed Said”. Two students are doing PhD from University of Punjab and Sindh University. Some more scholars are doing M.Phil and Ph.D’s from other universities of Pakistan. A Web Site about Shaheed Hakim Mohammed Said has also been developed. This website was launched in October 2002 on 4th death anniversary of Hakim Mohammed Said Shaheed. . The address of this website is: http://www.hakim-said.com.pk
Contributions to medicine
However, apart from being a great educational leader, Hakim Mohammed Said was also one of the finest exponents of eastern medicine, who had treated millions of patients from all over the world including Pakistan, Europe, Africa and the Middle East by the time of his death in October 1998. He had lent a new dimension to Alternative Medicine having getting it recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the fifty years of his active career as a practitioner of Greco-Arab medicine par excellence, Hakim Mohammed Said also achieved international renown as a scholar and researcher in medicine in recognition of his meritorious services and scholarly achievements when he was awarded Nishan-e-Imtiaz (Posthumous) by the Government of Pakistan in 2002.
As a scholar
He was prolific writer, having a large number of books and articles to his credit. He edited many research journals and periodicals on medicine, history and Islam. Hakim Mohammed Said also created two very widely attended national forums: Hamdard Shura (for leaders of public opinion) and Naunehal Assembly (for children). He attended and read papers at numerous conferences all over the world and organized a number of international conferences for the promotion of science in Pakistan in collaboration with national and international organizations including UNESCO and WHO. He also held important offices and memberships of dozens of national and international organizations related to education and health care, the fields to which his contributions are universally acknowledged.
He also attended around 100 International Conferences as a delegate from Pakistan. He was associated with more than 30 international associations and learned bodies. He also launched two world-class journals, Hamdard Medicus and Hamdard Islamicus. Hamdard-e-Sehat, which was already being published under his editorship since 1940, also appeared from Karachi in 1948. To get the young ones involved in good literature and to inculcate a healthy reading habit among them, he launched a magazine, Hamdard Naunehal; and established a separate division, Naunehal Adab, for producing quality books for children.
Hakim Mohammed Said was murdered on October 17, 1998. Nawaz Sharif, then Prime Minster of Pakistan, accused the Muttahida Quami Movement (MQM) of the murder. Several MQM workers were arrested and subsequently sentenced to death by an anti-terrorism court. Counsel for some of the appellants, Abdul Waheed Katpar, challenged the jurisdiction of the anti-terrorism court. His contention was that the trial in the ATC was wrong because it was not a case of terrorism. On May 31, 2001 Sindh High Court acquitted all accused. “The defence counsel in appeals had argued for the acquittal because the prosecution had failed to prove any evidence, whether they pertained to confessional statement, witnesses’ account, ballistic expert’s report and evidence about the recovery of empties and finger-prints. On confessional statements the defense had argued that signatures were obtained first on blank paper while contents of the confession were written afterwards and therefore, they were fabricated evidence.”
A prosecution witness in the Hakim Said murder case on December 24, 1998 identified Amirullah Sheikh and Zubair, two activists of the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM), as the main accused involved in the killing. (News, Dec 24, 1998).
Another accused in the Hakim Said murder case and an alleged assassin of Zuhair Akram Nadim arrested in two raids conducted by Surjani Town police and CIA Sadar respectively. Two more alleged accomplices were also arrested on being pointed out by Asim, reportedly an accused in the Hakim Said murder case on a tip off police cordoned off some parts of Sector L-1 in Surjani Town of District West from where Asim was arrested. Korangi police arrested Zubair alias Landhi Wala, who according to polices has confessed his involvement in the killing saying that Asim was the first to open fire at Hakim Said from a KK rifle. On the information given by Asim raids conducted in Yousuf Goth, Surjani and Sher Shah areas. Shujauddin alias Shujoo and Habib Ullah were arrested.
The main accused in Hakim Saeed case were Zulfiqar Haider, MQM MPA, Naushad alias Major Dandy, and Shakir alias Langra. Zubair alias Landhi Wala, Asim, Ajzaz alias Wazir, Asif and Amirullah were arrested. One person suspected to be Wahab Bandhani, who claims to be Hanif Kabarhi was also arrested.
The arms used by terrorists to murder Hakim Mohammad Said recovered from a nullah near Burns Road on the pointation of an arrest accused namely Nadeem Mota, Korangi police arrested three alleged terrorists said to be close associate of Aijaz alias Kala Munna named in over 200 heinous cases. A team of Rangers in Korangi recovered a considerable quantity of arms and ammunition. The inquiry officer of Hakim Mohammad Said case, SP Agha Mohammad Tahir ordered a raid when Nadim Mota during interrogation told the arms dumped near nullah behind Sindh secretariat. The arms seized from there included four Kalashinkovs, three TT pistols, one mauser and 300 bullets of KK rifle and pistols.(Nation Dec 16, 1998).
Abdul Sattar Edhi
Dr. Edhi was born in 1928 in Bantva in the Gujarat, British India. His father was a textile trader and earned a modest income for his family. He was a natural born leader and would encourage his friends to hold tiny circuses and perform gymnastics for the locals. When his mother would send him to school she would give him two paisa, one to spend for himself and the other to spend for another. At the age of eleven he started to take care of his mother who suffered paralysis from severe diabetes. From an early age Edhi learned to help others before himself – this would be crucial to success in his life later on.
In 1947 his family migrated to Karachi, Pakistan after the Partition of India. In 1951 he used the money he saved up while he was looking after his mother to purchase a small shop. It was at this shop where he opened a tiny dispensary with the help of a doctor who taught him basic medical care. He also encouraged his friends to give literacy classes there. Edhi had spent his life a simple man, and would continue to do so, he would sleep on a concrete bench outside the dispensary so he was available at any time to help people. In 1957 a major flu epidemic swept Karachi. Edhi was quick to react, setting up tents on the outskirts of the city to distribute free immunizations. Grateful residents donated generously to Edhi and so did the rest of Pakistan after hearing of his deeds. With all the donation money he bought the rest of the building his dispensary was located in. Edhi opened a free maternity centre and nursing school, and so Edhi Foundation was born.
Growth of Edhi Foundation
In the years that followed, Edhi Foundation grew through all of Pakistan. After the flu epidemic, a businessman donated a large sum to Edhi and with the money he purchased an ambulance vehicle which he drove himself. Today the Foundation has over 600 (about 2000 in year 2008 according to BBC Asia) ambulances located all over the country. He himself continues to travel with call outs out of Karachi to the rest of the Sindh province, the response time and services the ambulances provide are renowned for being better than the municipal ones. Along with hospitals and ambulance services, Edhi Foundation has set up clinics, maternity homes, mental asylums, homes for the physically handicapped, blood banks, orphanages, adoption centers, mortuaries, shelters for runaway children and battered women, schools, nursing courses and soup kitchens. A unique part of every Edhi centre is that there is a carriage outside each one, so that women who cannot afford to keep their children or have had a child out of wedlock and cannot keep it, can simply place their baby in the basket and Edhi Foundation will place it into an orphanage and give them a free education.
Today not just in Pakistan, but in the Muslim world, Abdul Sattar Edhi has earned a reputation as being one of the most selfless and honorable human beings today. Despite his fame and reputation he continues to lead a simple life, he wears traditional Pakistani Shalwar Kameez, of which he only owns one or two, and he owns one pair of slippers, which he has supposedly worn for the last twenty years. This is despite the fact the Edhi Foundation has a $10 million budget, out of which he takes nothing for himself. His son Faisal once stated that when the Foundation was setting up in Afghanistan, local staff had purchased chairs for guests and the press when a new center was being opened, when Edhi arrived he was furious because the money that was spent on the chairs could have been used to help people. That night he slept on the clinic floor with the ambulance drivers. The Edhi Foundation continues to grow. Dr Edhi, looking to the future, has stated that he aims to build a hospital every 5 km in Pakistan. Although he is given the title Maulana out of respect, he himself dislikes the title as he has never been to a religious school and he is not an Islamic cleric. He prefers being called ‘Doctor’ as he has received an honorary doctorate from The Institute of Business Administration in Pakistan for services to humanity. He also Completed his MBBS Degree From Pakistan in 1981. He is also famous for being very shy about his popularity and when people personally praise him for his work. He also refuses to accept donations from governments or formal religious organisations, because according to him they set ‘conditions’. Both General Zia-ul-Haq and the Italian government sent him generous donations, which he sent back. In 1996 his biography, A Mirror to the Blind, was published. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, as of 1997, Edhi Foundation’s ambulance service is the largest volunteer ambulance service in the world. He also personally holds the world record for having gone the longest time working without having taken a holiday. As of when the record was set, he has still not taken a single day off work.
US Authorities confiscate passport of Abdul Sattar Edhi
On January 8, 2008, US immigration officials interrogated Abdul Sattar Edhi at the John F. Kennedy Airport in New York for over eight hours, and seized his passport and other documents. Edhi told that US immigration officials had questioned him for eight hours at the airport. “During the interrogation, they wanted to know why I travelled to the US so frequently” he said. “I told them about the nature of my work, but they did not understand. They also wanted to know why I was not living in the US in spite of having a green card.” “The only explanation I can think of is my beard and my dress,” he said when asked why he had been stopped so often.
Edhi not allowed to visit Gaza
On Thursday, January 29, 2009 The News newspaper reported Edhi is not allowed to visit Gaza.. The newspaper further reported that Abdul Sattar Edhi, who is in Cairo along with Faisal Edhi and his two daughters for the last two weeks to help the affected Palestinians of Gaza, regretted that every coming day was making the sphere of human rights more restrictive across the world. A spokesman for the Edhi Foundation said on Wednesday that Edhi after staying in Cairo and not getting permission to visit Gaza, has reached the conclusion that human rights have been killed and buried deep. He said that he has helped in the provision of relief to people affected by wars, civil wars, earthquakes and drought in 28 countries and was never stopped to do his job. The spokesman said that Edhi has been trying to get permission from Cairo authorities to visit Gaza but in vain. He thanked the Pakistani ambassador to Egypt and the staff of the embassy for their cooperation and said now he was returning home as a depressed person.
Honors received – International awards
• 1986 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service
• 1988 Lenin Peace Prize
• 1992 Paul Harris Fellow Rotary International Foundation
• In 2000, Edhi was awarded the International Balzan Prize for Humanity, Peace and Brotherhood.
• On 26 March 2005, Edhi was presented with the Life Time Achievement Award by the World Memon Organization (WMO).
• On 11 November 2006, Edhi was presented with an Honorary Doctorate Degree by the Institute of Business Administration Karachi (IBA).
• In 2008, listed in a poll by the The Financial Daily as a favourite personality.
• Nishan-e-Imtiaz from Government of Pakistan 1989.
• Human Rights Award by Pakistan Human Rights Society.
• Khidmat Award by Pakistan Academy of Medical Sciences.
• Shield of Honour by Pakistan Army (E & C).
• Silver Jubilee Shield by College of Physicians and Surgeons, Pakistan.(1962-1987)
• Recognition of meritorious services to oppressed humanity during the eighties (1989) by Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Government of Pakistan. 45 Years Of Selfless Service.
• The Social Worker of Sub-Continent – 1989 by Government of Sind
• Pakistan Civic Award 1992 – by Pakistan Civic Society.
Imran Khan Niazi
(Urdu: عمران خان نیازی) (born 25 November 1952) is a retired Pakistani cricketer who played international cricket for two decades in the late twentieth century and has been a politician since the mid-1990s.
Currently, besides his political activism, Khan is also a charity worker and cricket commentator. Khan played for the Pakistani cricket team from 1971 to 1992 and served as its captain intermittently throughout 1982-1992. After retiring from cricket at the end of the 1987 World Cup, he was called back to join the team in 1988. At 39, Khan led his teammates to Pakistan’s first and only World Cup victory in 1992. He has a record of 3807 runs and 362 wickets in Test cricket, making him one of six world cricketers to have achieved an ‘All-rounder’s Triple’ in Test matches.
In April 1996, Khan founded and became the chairman of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (Movement for Justice), a small and marginal political party, of which he is the only member ever elected to Parliament. He represented Mianwali as a member of the National Assembly from November 2002 to October 2007. Khan, through worldwide fundraising, helped establish the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre in 1996 and Mianwali’s Namal College in 2008.
Tipu Sultan [1750-1799]
Tipu Sultan, the eldest son of Haider Ali, was born on December 10, 1750 at Devanhalli. Right from his early years he was trained in the art of warfare and at the age of 15 he used to accompany his father Haider Ali, the ruler of Mysore, to different military campaigns. In Addition, he also learnt different languages, mathematics and science. Tipu Sultan had a fascination for learning. His personal library consisted of more than 2,000 books in different languages. He was an extremely active man and worked hard for the welfare of his subjects. He took over the kingdom of Mysore after the death of his father in 1782, who died of a carbuncle in the midst of a campaign against the British. He continued fighting the British and defeated them in 1783.
Tipu Sultan was a farsighted person who could foresee East India Company’s design to get entrenched in India. He therefore negotiated with the French for help and also sought assistance from the Amir of Afghanistan and the Sultan of Turkey. The British were scared of Tipu’s growing strength and after their defeat in 1783 they formed an alliance with the Nizam of Hyderabad and Marhattas. The French, however, deserted Tipu after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. The British availed the chance with the help of the Nizam and the Marathas, and started the third Anglo-Mysore war in 1790.
As long as the British fought alone, Tipu always defeated them. But he could not come over their diplomacy, conspiracy and intrigue. Thus he was defeated in his capital, Seringapatam, and was forced to sign a humiliating treaty on March 22, 1792. As a result he had to concede half of his kingdom and pay an indemnity of 33 million rupees to the British and their allies. The alliance between the adversaries was soon broken and in 1795 the British, after defeating the Nizam, once again turned their attention towards Mysore. After the treaty at Seringapatam, Tipu Sultan did not waste his time and made extensive preparations against the British. He had rebuilt his war machine in the shortest possible time with the help of the French. The British regarded it as a violation of the treaty. This led to the start of the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in 1798 with the help of the Nizam. The French were unable to provide the needed support to Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan retreated to his capital and continued fighting till he breathed his last in May 1799. Tipu Sultan is buried at a mausoleum that he himself had built, along with his father Haider Ali and his mother Fatima Begum.
Tipu Sultan was a great patriot and like his father realized the danger of letting the British becoming stronger. Although much of the period of his rule was given to war with the Marhattas, the Nizam and the British, he made his state secure and peaceful with benevolent rule. He was an enlightened ruler who treated his non-Muslim subjects generously. He built a chain of excellent roads and constructed tanks and dams to promote agriculture. He introduced new industries, promoted trade and commerce on a large scale. Tipu prohibited the production and distribution of liquor and other intoxicants in Mysore. He also built and fortified numerous forts and many palaces, which were demolished by the British after his death. Bangalore Summer Palace still survives and is a remnant of his grand rule.